- By the direction of the squinting (turning) eye:
- An eye that turns inwards is called an esotropia.
- An eye that turns outwards is called an exotropia.
- An eye that turns upwards is called a hypertropia.
- An eye that turns downwards is called a hypotropia.
- Whether the squint is present all the time (constant), or comes and goes (intermittent).
- Whether the affected eye turns when the eyes are open and being used (manifest squint) or whether the eye turns only when it is covered or shut (latent squint) but looks fine when the eyes are open.
- Whether the severity (angle or deviation of the eye) of the squint is the same in all directions or not:
- A concomitant squint means that the angle (degree) of the squint is always the same in every direction that you look. That is, the two eyes move well, all the muscles are working but the two eyes are always out of alignment by the same amount, no matter which way you look.
- An incomitant squint means that the angle of squint can vary. For example, when you look to the left, there may be no squint and the eyes are aligned. However, when you look to the right, one eye may not move as far and the eyes are then not aligned.
Congenital squint :
Sometimes a baby is born with a squint, although it may not be obvious for a few weeks. In about half of such cases, there is a family history of squint or the need for glasses. The eye muscles are usually at fault. If squint is suspected, it is important that the baby be referred for accurate assessment at the earliest opportunity. Sometimes a baby has what is known as ‘pseudo squint’ which is related to the shape of the face, but a baby with a true squint will not grow out of it.Early eyecheck up is the key to early diagnosis and cure to this as its imperative the child grows up with good vision.
Long sight ( hypermetropia-The eye sees far off objects but cannot see close objects ) :
Childhood illnesses :
Squint may develop following an illness such as measles or chickenpox. This may mean that a tendency to squint has been present but, prior to the illness, the child was able to keep his or her eye straight.
In some cases a difficult delivery of a baby where forceps are used to assist in the delivery or illness damaging a nerve can lead to a squint.