Glaucoma usually occurs when pressure in our eye increases. The pressure increases because the eye fluid called aqueous humor isn’t circulating normally in the front part of the eye. Normally this fluid flows out through a mesh like channel. If this channel becomes blocked, fluids build up that cause glaucoma. It can be inherited that means it is passed from parents to children. Glaucoma usually occurs in both eyes, but it may involve each eye to a different extent.
- Appearance of coloured rings around light
- Pain and redness in eyes
- Gradual darkness at outer edge of vision
- Heaviness or headache
- Open Angle Glaucoma - it occurs when the trabecular meshwork of the eye gradually becomes less efficient at draining fluid
- Normal Tension Glaucoma - in this eye pressure is consistently below 21 mmHg, but optic nerve damage and loss of vision still occur
- Closed Angle Glaucoma - it happens when someone’s iris is very close to the drainage angle in their eye. The iris can end up blocking the drainage angle. The blocking of drainage angle will increase the eye pressure quickly
- Congenital Glaucoma - it is a rare type of glaucoma that develops in infants and young children and can be inherited.
- Secondary Glaucoma - that results from another eye condition or diseases. For example, someone who had an eye injury, or had a tumor may develop secondary glaucoma.
- Glaucoma Suspect - people having normal eye pressure but their optic nerve or visual field looks suspicious for glaucoma
Glaucoma is discovered during the routine eye checkup.
- Tonometry : measure intraocular pressure
- Gonioscopy : view the optic nerve changes
- Pachymetry : to check the corneal thickness
- Perimetry / Visual Field Test : to map the field of vision of each eye
- OCT(Optical Coherence Tomography ) : to calculate the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and loss in early stage of glaucoma
- Medication : This includes eye drops have to be used as advised by the doctor. This rather decrease the formation of eye fluid.
- Surgery : It is the last option when eye drops can no longer control the intraocular pressure